Multilayer bending actuator generate a bending mode. The piezo plate benders are produced with a stroke up to +/- 1270 µm. Multilayer bending actuator generate a bending mode. The piezo ring benders are produced with stroke up to +/- 185 µm and a blocking force up to 39 N. Noliac ring benders are used in many different industries due to the the easy integration of the ring shape. 2D multilayer bender actuators are capable of moving up, down, right and left, or as a single or double s-morph. The piezo design is scalable in terms of stiffness, displacement and dimensions. Piezoelectric tube scanners are thin cylinders of radially poled piezoelectric material with four external electrodes and a solid or quadrant internal electrode. When a voltage is applied to one of the external electrodes, the actuator wall expands which causes a vertical contraction and a large lateral deflection of the tube tip. A circumferential electrode can be used for vertical or radial extension and contraction. Piezoelectric scanners are used extensively in scanning probe microscopes and applications such as fibre stretching and beam scanning.