Shear plate actuators are more compact and have higher resonant frequencies than conventional actuators. They achieve a peak-peak stroke of 1.5µm. The monolayer piezo shear plates also require reduced electrical energy for a given displacement. Shear stacks are available as single-axis and multi-axis actuators with a stroke of up to 9 µm. Their low capacitance results in reduced power requirements for a given generated displacement. The shear stacks are used in nanopositioning, precision mechanics, active vibration cancellation, switches, semiconductor manufacturing and testing.